Suzanne Ho-Wai SO


Ph.D., King's College London
Rm 321, Wong Foo Yuan Building
3943 6211
2603 5019

Teaching Areas

  • PSYC4906- Guided Self-help Practicum 

Research Interests

Psychological models of psychosis; Cognitive and affective pathways to psychosis; Reasoning in psychosis and other psychiatric disorders; Psychological treatment for severe mental illnesses; Cognitive behavioural therapy; Therapist training; Experience sampling methodology/ ecological momentary assessment.

I am interested in examining the psychological processes that contribute to the development and maintenance of psychosis, a severe mental illness. My students and I focus on the role of cognitive biases, such as attributional style and data-gathering bias, on delusionality and treatment outcome. We also investigate the extent to which cognitive and affective processes may be shared between psychosis and other psychiatric disorders. Our projects cover the continuum of psychosis, from individuals at risk of developing the illness, to patients across the acute and recovery stages. Apart from theoretical projects, we are currently running two treatment trials for psychosis and bipolar disorder respectively. I have also developed an interest in assessing subjective psychological experiences using experience sampling methodology on a mobile phone app.



So, S.H., Chau, A.K.C., Chung, L.K., Leung, C.M., Chong, G.H.C., Chang, W.C., Mak, A.D.P., Chan, S.S.M., Lee, S., & Sommer, I.E. (2023). Moment-to-moment affective dynamics in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. European Psychiatry, [ePub in August 2023] DOI: 10.1192/j.eurpsy.2023.2438

Ellett, L., Schlier, B., Kingston, J., Zhu, C., So, S.H., Lincoln, T.M., Morris, E.M.J., & Gaudiano, B.A. (2022). Pandemic paranoia in the general population: international prevalence and sociodemographic profile. Psychological Medicine. [ePub in Sep 2022] DOI: 10.1017/S0033291722002975

Kingston, J.L, Schlier, B., Lincoln, T., So, S.H., Gaudiano, B.A., Morris, E.M.J., Phiri, P., & Ellett, L. (2023). Paranoid thinking as a function of minority group status and intersectionality: An international examination of the role of negative beliefs. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 49, 1078-1087. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbad027

Wang, W., Sun, X., Wong, A.C.N., & So, S.H. (2023). Selective processing in attention and memory in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of the negative priming effect. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 161, 112-122. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2023.02.041

So, S.H., Zhu, C., Chau, A.K.C., Sun, X., Chiu, C.-D., Chan, R.C.K., & Leung, P.W.L. (2023). 18-month trajectories of delusional dimensions in young adults: Relationship with reasoning biases and worry. Journal of Psychopathology and Clinical Science, 132, 209-221. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000784

Chau, S.W.H., Hussain, S., Chan, S.S.M., Wong, O.W.H., Zhang, J., Feng, H., Lai, K.Y.C., Ma, S.L., So, S.H., Tsoi, K.K.F., Wing, Y.K., Hung, S.F., & Leung, P.W.L. (2023). A comparison of sleep-wake patterns among school-age children and adolescents in Hong Kong before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 19, 749-757. DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.10422

Chau, A.K.C., So, S.H., Sun, X., Zhu, C., Chiu, C.-D., Chan, R.C.K., & Leung, P.W.L. (2022). The co-occurrence of multidimensional loneliness with depression, social anxiety and paranoia in non-clinical young adults: A latent profile analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.931558

Chau, A.K.C., So, S.H., Sun, X., Zhu, C., Chiu, C.-D., Chan, R.C.K., & Leung, P.W.L. (2022). A network analysis on the relationship between loneliness and schizotypy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 311, 148-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.057

So, S.H., Zhu, C., Lincoln, T., Gaudiano, B., Kingston, J.L., Ellett, L., & Morris, E.M.J. (2022). Pandemic paranoia, general paranoia, and their relationship with worry and beliefs about self/others – a multi-site latent class analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 241, 122-129. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2022.01.045

Lincoln, T.M., Schlier, B., Strakeljahn, F., Gaudiano, B.A., So, S.H., Kingston, J., Morris, E.M.J., & Ellett, L. (2022). Taking a machine learning approach to optimize prediction of vaccine hesitancy in high income countries. Scientific Reports, 12, 1-12. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-05915-3 

Sun, X., So, S.H., Chung, L.K., Chiu, C.-D., Chan, R.C.K., & Leung, P.W.L. (2022). Longitudinal bifactor modelling of anxiety, depression and schizotypy – the role of rumination as a shared mechanism. Schizophrenia Research, 240, 153-161. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2022.01.005

Kingston, J.L, Schlier, B., Ellett, L., So, S.H., Gaudiano, B., Morris, E.M.J., & Lincoln, T. (2021). The Pandemic Paranoia Scale (PPS): Factor structure and measurement invariance across languages.  Psychological Medicine, 53, 2652-2661. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291721004633

So, S.H., Chung, L.K., Tse, C.Y., Chan, S.S., Chong, G.H., Hung, K.S., & Sommer, I.E.C. (2021). Moment-to-moment dynamics between auditory verbal hallucinations and negative affect and the role of beliefs about voices. Psychological Medicine, 51, 661-667. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291719003611

So, S.H., Mak, A.D., Chan, P., Lo, C., Na, S., Leung, M.H., Ng, I.H., Chau, A.K.C., & Lee, S. (2021). Efficacy of Phase 1 of Life Goals Programme on symptom reduction and mood stability for bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 281, 949-957. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.019 

So, S.H., Chan, G.H., Wong, C.K., Ching, E.W., Lee, S.S., Wong, B.C., Zhu, C., Sun, X., Chung, L.K., Hung, A.Y., Wong, J.O., & Chan, S.S. (2021). A randomised controlled trial of metacognitive training for psychosis, depression, and belief flexibility. Journal of Affective Disorders, 279, 388-397. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.126

Powell, C.L.Y.M., Lo, A.P.K., Yeung, G.T.Y., Leung, N.T.Y., Mak, W.W.S., So, S.H., Chiu, C.D., Yau, S.S.W., Mullan, E.G., & Leung, P.W.L. (2021). A pilot study on the effectiveness of low-intensity cognitive-behavioural therapy (LiCBT) for common mental disorders in Hong Kong. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 13, 1-6. DOI: 10.1017/S1352465820000971 

Wang, W., Chau, A.K.C., Kong, P., Sun, X., & So, S.H. (2021). Efficacy of Motivational Interviewing in Treating Co-Occurring Psychosis and Substance Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 83, 21r13916. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.21r13916

Zhu, C., Kwok, N.T., Chan, T.C., Chan, G.H., & So, S.H. (2021). Inflexibility in reasoning: Comparisons of cognitive flexibility, explanatory flexibility, and belief flexibility between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 609569DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.609569

Gaweda, L., Moritz, S., Ochoa, S., So, S.H. (2021). Editorial: The relationship between cognitive biases and psychosis: Searching for mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 753317. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.753317

Wang, L-L, Sun, X., Chiu, C-D., Leung, P.W.L., Chan, R.C.K., & So, S.H. (2021). Altered cortico-striatal functional connectivity in people with high levels of schizotypy: A longitudinal resting-state study. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 102621. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102621

Mak, A., Leung, O.N.W., Chou, I.W.Y., Wong, S.L.Y., Chu, W.C., Yeung, D., So, S.H., Ma, S.L., Lam, L.C.W., Leung, C.M., & Lee, S. (2021). White matter integrity in young medication-naïve bipolar II depressed adults. Scientific Reports, 11:1816DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-81355-9

Lai, K.Y.C., Leung, P.W.L., Hung, S.F., Shea, C.K.S., Mo, F., Che, K.K.I., Tse, C.Y., Lau, F.L.F., Ma, S.L., Wu, J.C.Y., So, S.H., & Dadds, M.R. (2020). Gastrointestinal problems in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 16, 1807-1815DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S260654

So, S.H., Sun, X., Chan, G.H.K., Chan, I.H.H., Chiu, C.D., Chan, S.K.W., Wong, W.Y.E., Leung, P.W.L., Chen, E.Y.H. (2020). Risk perception in paranoia and anxiety: Two investigations across clinical and non-clinical populations. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, 21, 100176. DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2020.100176

Chau, A.K.C., & So, S.H. (2020). A network model of the relationship between loneliness, paranoia, and emotional disturbances. European Psychiatry, 63(S1), S7. DOI: 10/1192/j.eurpsy.2020.52

So, S.H., Chan, G.H.K., Wong, C.K.W., Ching, E.W.K., Lee, S., Wong, B, Zhu, C., Sun, X., Chung, L.K.H., Hung, A.Y., Wong, J.O.Y., Chan, S.S.M. (2020). Efficacy of a 4-session metacognitive training for schizophrenia, depression, and belief flexibility. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 46(Suppl.1), S49-S50. DOI: 10/1093/schbul/sbaa031.111

So, S.H, Chung, L.K.H., Tse, C.Y., Chan, S.S.M., Chong, G.H.C., Hung, K.S.Y., & Sommer, I.E.C. (2019). Moment-to-moment dynamics between auditory verbal hallucinations and negative affect and the role of beliefs about voices. European Psychiatry, 56(Suppl. 1), S819.

So, S.H. (2019). The Self-Reflective Writing Scale (SRWS): A new measure to assess self-reflection following self-experiential cognitive behaviour therapy training. In T. Heidenreich & P. Tata (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of Behavioural & Cognitive Therapies, Volume I. Research and Applied Issues, p. 239

Sun, X., So, S.H., Chan, R.C.K., Chiu, C.D., Leung, P.W.L. (2019). Worry and metacognitions as predictors of the development of anxiety and paranoia. Scientific Reports, 9, 1-10DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-51280-z

Zhang, R., Zhou, H., Wang, Y., Yang, Z., Wang, Y., So, S.H., Chiu, C.D., Leung, P.W.L., Cheung, E.F.C., Chan, R.C.K. (2019). Network analysis of schizotypal personality traits and their association with other subclinical psychiatric features. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 209-216DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2019.08.005

Leung, M.H., So, S.H., Kwok, N.T., Ng, I.H., Chan, P., Lo, C.C., Na, S., Mak, A.D.P., & Lee, S. (2019). Moment-to-moment interaction between affectivity and coping behaviours in bipolar disorder and the role of cognitive appraisals. BJPsych Open, 5(3), e44. DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2019.35

Chan, Y., So, S.H., Mak, A.D.P., Siah, K.T.H., Chan, W., & Wu, J. (2019). The temporal relationship of daily life stress, emotions and bowel symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome – diarrhea subtype: A smartphone-based experience sampling study. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 31, e13514. DOI: 10.1111/nmo.13514

Chau, A.K.C., Zhu, C., & So, S.H. (2019). Loneliness and the psychosis continuum: A meta-analysis on positive psychotic experiences and a meta-analysis on negative psychotic experiences. International Review of Psychiatry, 23, 1-20DOI: 10.1080/09540261.2019.

Chau, S.W.H., Tse, C.Y., So. S.H., Chan, S.S.M. (2019). A randomised controlled study on the efficacy of attentional bias modification training (ABMT) in patients with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). East Asian Archives of Psychiatry, 29, 3-9DOI: 10.12809/eaap1759

So, S.H., Bennett-Levy, J., Perry, H., Wood, D.H., & Wong, C.W. (2018). The Self-Reflective Writing Scale (SRWS): A new measure to assess self-reflection following self-experiential cognitive behaviour therapy training. Reflective Practice, 19, 505-521DOI: 10.1080/14623943.2018.1536652

Zhu, C., Sun, X., So, S.H. (2018). Associations between belief inflexibility and dimensions of delusions: A meta-analytic review of two approaches to assessing belief flexibility. British Journal of Clinical Psychology57(1), 59-81. DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12154

So, S.H., Chau, A.K.C., Peters, E., Swendsen, J., Garety, P., Kapur, S. (2018). Moment-to-moment associations between negative affect, aberrant salience, and paranoia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry23, 299-306. DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2018.1503080

Wang, Y., Li, Z., Liu, W.H., Wei, X.H., Jiang, X.Q., Lui, S.S.Y., So, S.H., Cheung, E.F.C., Debbane, M., & Chan, R.C.K. (2018). Negative schizotypy and altered functional connectivity during facial emotion processing. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44(Suppl. 2), s491-s500. DOI: 10.1093/schbul.sby036

Chan, E., Lam, H., So, S.H., Goggins III, W., Ho, J., Liu, S., & Chung, P. (2018). Association between ambient temperatures and mental disorder hospitalizations in a subtropical city. A time-series study of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, pii: E754. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15040754

Mak, A.D.P., Lau, D.T.Y., Chan, A.K.W., So, S.H., Leung, O., Wong, S.L.Y., Lam, L., Leung, C.M., & Lee, S. (2018). Cognitive impairment in treatment-naïve bipolar II and unipolar depression. Scientific Reports, 8, 1905. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-20295-3

Wang, Y., Shi, H-S., Liu, W-H, Xie, D-J., Geng, F-L., Yan, C., Wang, Y., Xiao, Y-H., So, S.H., Chiu, C-D., Leung, P.W.L., Cheung, E.F.C., & Chan, R.C.K. (2018). Trajectories of schizotypy and their emotional and social functioning: An 18-month follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research, 193, 384-390. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.07.038

Sun, X., So, S. H., Chiu, C. D., Chan, R. C. K., & Leung, P. W. L. (2018). Paranoia and anxiety: A cluster analysis in a non-clinical sample and the relationship with worry processes. Schizophrenia Research, 197, 144-149. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.01.024

Chan, Y., So, S.H., Mak, A.D.P., Siah, K.T.H., Chan, W., Wu, J.C.Y. (2018). The temporal relationship of daily life stress, emotions and bowel symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome: A smartphone-based experience sampling study. Gut, 67(suppl. 2), A62. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-IDDFabstracts.135

Sun, X., So, S.H., Chan, R.C.K., Chiu, C.D., & Leung, P.W.L. (2018). Impact of dysfunctional metacognitions and worry on development of paranoia: A 1-year longitudinal study in a non-clinical sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44(Suppl. 1), S161-162. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sby016.394

Chan, E., Lam, H., So, S.H., Goggins III, W.B., Ho, J.Y., Liu, S., & Chung, P. (2018). Short-term association between ambient temperature and mental disorders hospitalization in an Asian subtropic city: A time-series study. ISEE Conference Abstracts. DOI: 10.1289/isesisee.2018.P02.0400

Sun, X., Zhu, C., & So, S.H. (2017). Dysfunctional metacognition across psychopathologies: A meta-analytic review. European Psychiatry, 45, 139-153. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.05.029

Wang, Y-Y., Shi, H-S., Liu, W-H., Yan, C., Wang, Y., Chiu, C-D., So, S.H., Lui, S.S.Y., Cheung, E.F.C., & Chan, R.C.K. (2017). Invariance of factor structure of the 21-item Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI-21) over time and across samples. Psychiatry Research, 254, 190-197DOI: 10/1016/j.psychres.2017.04.053

Klippel, A., Myin-Germeys, I., Chavez-Baldini, U., Precher, K. J., Kempton, M., Valmaggia, L., Calem, M., So, S. H., Beards, S., Hubbard, K., Gayer-Anderson, C., Onyejiaka, A., Wichers, M., McGuire, P., Murray, R.M., Garety, P., van Os, J., Wykes, T., Morgan, C., Reininghaus, U. (2017). Modelling the interplay between psychological processes and adverse, stressful contexts and experiences in pathways to psychosis: an experience sampling study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 43, 302-315. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbw185

Zhu, C. & So, S.H. (2017). Belief inflexibility and dimensions of delusional beliefs in non-affective psychosis: Comparison with non-clinical meaningful beliefs. European Psychiatry, 41, S846. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.01.2264

So, S.H., Chau, A.K.C., Peters, E., Swendsen, J., Garety, P., & Kapur (2017). Moment-to-moment associations between emotional disturbances, aberrant salience and persecutory delusions. European Psychiatry, 41(suppl.), S838. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.01.1653

Other Information

  • An interview on the RTHK1 health programme “精靈一點”. The topic is on "Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis", Feb 7, 2014.
  • An interview on the Phoenix TV programme “醫APPS最強”. The topic is on "IQ", Mar 29, 2014


2016        CUHK Young Researcher Award

2016        CUHK University Education Award

2016        CUHK Faculty of Social Science Exemplary Teaching Award

2017        UGC Teaching Award (Early Career Category)

2021        CUHK Faculty of Social Science Exemplary Teaching Award

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